Bacterial toxins

Bacterial toxins are proteins that exist on the cell membrane and make bacteria more pyrogenic and resistant. Gram positive bacteria have peptidoglycans, teichoic acid and lipotechoic acid in their cell wall, which act as adhesions and regulate cell wall synthesis. Gram negative Bacteria have a Lipopolysaccharide layer. Lipid A is responsible for toxicity and pyrogenicity … Continue reading Bacterial toxins


Hospital Acquired Infections They’re more prevalent than you may think! A hospital acquired infection, also known as nosocomial infections is an infection acquired during hospital care which was not present at the time of admission. Infections which occur 48 hours after admission are considered nosocomial. The infection can come from the outside environment, an infected person in … Continue reading Hospital Acquired Infections


Handling the growth of microorganisms Firstly, what does the word ‘Microorganism’ refer to? Microorganism refers to any organism too small to be seen by the naked eye. Bacteria, protozoa, some algae and fungi, and viruses are examples of microorganisms. To handle growth of the microorganisms we work with, we need to understand their chemical … Continue reading Microorganisms

Cross contamination

Product contamination in the pharmaceutical industry Any pharmaceutical product, whether manufactured in the hospital or industrial environment, may have a potential to be contaminated with micro-organisms or other foreign particles such as metals. Producing medicinal products requires several manufacturing steps using various types of equipment and supporting systems within a facility. Failure to provide these … Continue reading Cross contamination